Mulberry tree leaves have been known to provide a variety of health benefits to humans. In fact, there are many preclinical and clinical studies that have been conducted to demonstrate the medicinal properties and clinical efficacy of the leaves of this tree.
Mulberry tree leaves and fruit have been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine and in folk remedies. Its leaves and fruit have been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties.
Mulberry tree leaves contain flavonoids and tannins. These compounds may have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. They are also rich in phytonutrients that help to improve heart health.
White mulberry tree leaves are known for their ability to reduce the formation of bad cholesterol. In addition, they can slow down the digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestines. This, in turn, can help to control blood sugar levels.
Several clinical studies have shown that mulberry leaf and fruit extracts can lower inflammatory markers. However, there have been several unanswered questions about the potential medicinal benefits of white mulberry. Currently, more clinical trials are required to confirm its safety.
While there are some potential benefits of white mulberry, it is not yet approved by the FDA for use as a dietary supplement. Additionally, there is no official dose.
There are also some mild side effects to taking white mulberry products. Some of these include vomiting and diarrhea. If you have any concerns about your health, you should consult with your doctor.
Mulberry tree parts have also been reported to treat dysentery and fever. The leaves are also a source of antioxidants. As a result, mulberry tree leaves have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity properties.
Various studies have suggested that white mulberry leaves and products derived from them can reduce total lipids and triglycerides in people with T2DM. Additionally, mulberry leaf products can increase the activity of certain enzymes that are responsible for regulating glucose metabolism.
Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrating biological properties and clinical efficacy of mulberry leaves
Mulberry tree leaves contain flavonoids with known biological activity. The chemical components of mulberry include rutin, quercetin, and anthocyanins. This Asian plant grows in Southwestern Asia and Europe. Traditionally, the berry has been used for flavor and medicinal purposes.
The chemical components of mulberry fruit are known to have antioxidant properties. Studies have also investigated their potential to treat diseases. In particular, the phytochemicals in the fruit and tree leaves are of interest in a variety of ways, including their ability to protect against viral pathogenesis.
Morus nigra (the black mulberry) is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. It has been shown to benefit the immune system and to suppress lipid peroxidation in mice. Aside from its cellular antioxidant properties, it has been demonstrated to reduce hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed animals.
Flavonoids have been shown to help with diseases such as Ebola, influenza, and COVID-19 pneumonia. They inhibit several essential viral life cycle stages. However, their efficacy in vivo is dependent on many factors, such as the type of plant, absorption, metabolism, and excretion.
Several studies have been conducted to assess the in vitro antioxidant effects of mulberry fruit extracts. Specifically, cyanidin-3-glucoside is known to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis.
The aqueous extract of mulberry leaves caused a significant rise in serum ALT and AST activities in normal animals. Additionally, encapsulated mulberry leaf powder was used to evaluate hypolipidemic effects of M. alba in patients with type 2 diabetes.
As a result, the plant has been marketed as a cardiovascular health supplement. However, more specific clinical trials are needed to determine the role of the compounds in human health.
Currently, only a limited number of studies are available to evaluate the potential of mulberry tree leaves in treating diseases. To address this, the investigators contacted clinical trial sites and investigators of ongoing clinical trials to obtain relevant interim information.
Treatment for hypertriglyceridemia
Mulberry leaves are an important part of Asian traditional medicine and have many pharmacological effects. They have antioxidant and antihyperlipidaemic effects. In addition to the aforementioned properties, they have been used for treating metabolic diseases such as diabetes and dyslipidaemia.
In a recent study, mulberry leaves were found to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is strongly associated with vascular membrane rigidity and atherosclerotic plaque formation. Moreover, mulberry leaves may also play a role in the reduction of excessive cholesterol accumulation in vivo.
A clinical trial conducted at the Chulalongkorn University in Thailand showed that mulberry leaves significantly reduced lipid levels and the risk of heart attack in patients with hypercholesterolemia. The study used a 12-week treatment with mulberry leaf powder and mulberry leaf tea. As a result, the level of total cholesterol and LDL-C in the blood was reduced and the number of triglycerides was decreased.
Mulberry leaves also improved glucose metabolism and decreased lipid accumulation. In a mouse model, mulberry leaf extract increased the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK-3b). It also decreased the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Besides, mulberry leaf treatment normalized glucose and insulin indexes in diabetic animals.
Mulberry leaves also have anti-inflammatory properties. This is attributed to the inhibition of the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, the extract also suppressed the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1b.
However, the use of mulberry leaves as a single intervention is not common. Some mulberry leaves products are currently available commercially as dietary supplements. Among the mulberry leaf compounds, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) is a prominent functional compound. DNJ acts as an antihypertensive agent. DNJ’s effective dose ranges from six to 24 mg.
Infestations of nematodes in mulberry tree leaves is a serious concern. Nematodes are microscopic roundworms that feed on living plant tissue, especially the roots. They are commonly associated with sandy soil.
Among the most important nematode infestations on mulberry is root knot nematode. Root knot nematodes cause galls on the roots, leading to severe damage. Although these infections are relatively easy to spot, they can cause significant vigor loss and extensive root damage. The disease spreads through infected saplings, irrigation, and contaminated fertilizers.
One of the most common symptoms of a nematode infection is leaf drop. The worms also cause leaf yellowing, stunted growth, and reduced fruit production. However, many healthy plants will not display any symptoms. Symptoms will vary depending on climatic conditions.
The causes of nematode attacks on mulberry are not well understood. Some factors influencing the severity of the problem include the degree of the infection and the host species.
Currently, there are about 42 species of nematodes known to be associated with mulberry. This includes 24 genera. Several of these species have the potential to develop from egg to egg-laying adult in 21 to 28 days during the warm summer months.
Among the species, Meloidogyne arenaria is the most common nematode affecting mulberry in Luliang County. According to the study, it is a serious threat to the sericulture industry.
According to the findings, the males of Meloidogyne sp. are colourless, slender, cylindrical, and short. Besides, they have a blunt caudal part. During the first stage, juveniles feed on the egg that is encapsulated in their elongated, pearly body.
The second stage larvae infect the roots of the mulberry. These larvae produce a gelatinous mass that encircles the root. Some of these galls can grow to a diameter of one inch.
Mulberry tree leaves are susceptible to a number of diseases. The first is mulberry leaf blight, which is caused by a bacterium. This infection can lead to a loss of woody tissue and cause irregularly shaped lesions. Other symptoms include yellow spots or brown patches, wilting leaves, and distorted and shriveled foliage.
False mildew is a fungal disease that infects the underside of leaves. Spores float out of the stomata and spread to form a white coating or cobweb on the leaf surface. Affected trees may overwinter as fallen leaves.
In addition, mulberry leaves can be affected by a variety of other plant diseases. Some examples are popcorn disease, fungus wilt, and bacterial blight. All of these are diseases that can be prevented or treated. But it is important to note that each disease has its own set of symptoms.
If you see brown spots on your mulberry leaves, it could be a sign of a fungal leaf spot. However, this disease can also be caused by a bacterium.
Leaf spot is more common in rainy seasons. The disease can affect young trees as well as older ones. You can control the fungus by spraying with approved fungicides. Pruning dead shoots in autumn can also help.
Several applications are needed to effectively control the fungus. You can use a registered fungicide, such as sulfur, copper hydroxide, or neem oil. These can be injected into the soil. They can also affect the soil’s mycorrhiza and earthworms.
Although most people associate Mulberry Leaf Spot with drought conditions, this disease can be more severe during the summer months. To prevent it, keep your trees hydrated in dry spells and prune them carefully in autumn.